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20 July - 25 July, 2021

Beliefs in witchcraft are widely distributed both geographically and chronologically. At the European level, the accusations were put together within a coherent intellectual framework of reference. This is indeed part of a wider process of formation of scapegoat images on social targets such as the leper, the Jew, and the heretic, before getting to witches.

19 July - 28 July, 2021

Throughout history cities and towns fulfilled a series of complex functions. They emerged in order to fulfil a key role in the production, exchange and consumption of commodities, as well as to serve as administrative centres for a district, region or realm. Therefore, they are characterized by populations larger, denser and more complex than that of the surrounding countryside.